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|Title:||Nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units.|
Natchu, U C
Kabra, S K
|Citation:||Lodha R, Natchu UC, Nanda M, Kabra SK, Chandra U, Natchu M. Nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2001 Nov; 68(11): 1063-70|
|Abstract:||Nosocomial infections are a significant problem in pediatric intensive care units. While Indian estimates are not available, western PICUs report incidence of 6-8%. The common nosocomial infections in PICU are bloodstream infections (20-30% of all infections), lower respiratory tract infections (20-35%), and urinary tract infections (15-20%); there may be some differences in their incidence in different PICUs. The risk of nosocomial infections depends on the host characteristics, the number of interventions, invasive procedures, asepsis of techniques, the duration of stay in the PICU and inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Most often the child had endogenous flora, which may be altered because of hospitalization, are responsible for the infections. The common pathogens involved are Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, E. coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, enterococci, and candida. Nosocomial pneumonias predominantly occur in mechanically ventilated children. There is no consensus on the optimal approach for their diagnosis. Bloodstream infections are usually attributable to the use of central venous lines; use of TPN and use of femoral site for insertion increase the risk. Urinary tract infections occur mostly after catheterization and can lead to secondary bacteremia. The diagnostic criteria have been discussed in the review. With proper preventive strategies, the nosocomial infection rates can be reduced by up to 50%; handwashing, judicious use of interventions, and proper asepsis during procedures remain the most important practices.|
|Appears in Collections:||Indian Journal of Pediatrics|
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