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Title: Clinical presentation of hypernatremic dehydration in exclusively breast-fed neonates.
Authors: Yaseen, Hakam
Salem, Moza
Darwich, Maha
Issue Date: 5-Dec-2004
Citation: Yaseen H, Salem M, Darwich M. Clinical presentation of hypernatremic dehydration in exclusively breast-fed neonates. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2004 Dec; 71(12): 1059-62
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical presentation of dehydration related to failure of lactation in exclusively breast-fed term infants. METHOD: A prospective study was performed between January 2000 and June 2003 in Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah. Enrollment criteria included term neonates whose birth weight of > 2000 g with no underlying organic illness causing poor feeding admitted for clinical manifestations of dehydration with weight loss of > 10% during the first 2 weeks of life. The control group, a non-randomized sample included healthy full term neonates, seen in Sharjah maternal and child health care center at 4-7 days old for their routine Guthrie screening test. For each dehydrated neonate we took two neonates as controls. Mother's age, parity, length of pregnancy, any pathologic conditions, breastfeeding history and her level of knowledge of lactation was recorded. Neonatal information included mode of delivery, percentage of weight loss, clinical examination, and stool and urine output the previous day. Data was analyzed with Student 't' test and chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of 17208 live births, 29 neonates between the ages of 2-13 days were admitted with weight loss of between 12 and 29% (dehydrated group). 27 patients had hypernatremic dehydration with serum sodium level ranging from 150 to 195 mmol/l. Mean age of admission was 4.9 days. Reasons for admission were: signs of dehydration (55%); hyperthermia (55%); hypoglycemia (27%) and jaundice (59%). The control group included 58 healthy neonates. Their birth weight and age were comparable to those in the dehydrated group. In comparison with the control group, delivery by cesarean section (P< 0.0001), lower level of maternal breastfeeding knowledge (P=0.03), transient inadequate breast milk quantity (P=0.005) and nipple anomalies (P=0.001) was significantly more common in the dehydrated group. Fewer voidings of urine (< 6 times /day) and stool (< 3 times/day) in the previous 24 hours before admission was more frequently observed in the dehydrated group (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Low level of maternal knowledge in lactation, cesarean section and failure of early postnatal follow up was associated with the neonatal dehydration. Decreased urine and stool frequency might be considered as a warning for failure of lactation.
Appears in Collections:Indian Journal of Pediatrics

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