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|Title:||Botulinum toxin in ophthalmic plastic surgery.|
|Authors:||Naik, Milind N|
Soparkar, Charles Ns
Honavar, S G
|Citation:||Naik MN, Soparkar CN, Murthy R, Honavar SG. Botulinum toxin in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2005 Dec; 53(4): 279-88|
|Abstract:||Botulinum toxin chemodenervation has evolved greatly over the past 30 years since its introduction in the 1970s for the management of strabismus. Among ophthalmic plastic surgeons, botulinum toxins are often used as the first line treatment for facial dystonias. These toxins are also efficacious for the temporary management of various other conditions including keratopathies (through so called chemo-tarsorraphy), upper eyelid retraction, orbicularis overaction-induced lower eyelid entropion, gustatory epiphora, Frey's syndrome, and dynamic facial rhytids such as lateral canthal wrinkles (crow's feet), glabellar creases and horizontal forehead lines. This article describes the pharmacology, reconstitution techniques and common current applications of botulinum toxins in ophthalmic plastic surgery.|
|Appears in Collections:||Indian Journal of Ophthalmology|
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